The latest news from the Ningbo Institute of Materials of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the research team has developed a kilowatt-class aluminum air battery power generation system based on graphene air cathode. They used a graphene composite manganese-based oxide catalyst and a new graphene-based high-efficiency air cathode to increase the power density of the single cell by 25%, greatly improving the overall performance of the metal-air battery. The battery system has an energy density of up to 510 Wh/kg, a capacity of 20 kWh, and an output power of 1000 W.
Through actual demonstrations, the battery system can simultaneously supply power to a TV set, a computer, an electric fan and 10 60-watt lighting bulbs. The initial verification of the power generation and power supply capacity of the aluminum air battery system is new energy and new. A major breakthrough in the field of materials.
An aluminum air battery is essentially a fuel cell, a chemical power source that directly converts the chemical energy of a metal material into electrical energy.
The aluminum air battery uses aluminum as the negative electrode and oxygen as the positive electrode in the single cell. It only consumes aluminum and a small amount of water during operation. When the aluminum and water are consumed, it cannot work. It is a primary battery that cannot be charged and needs to be replaced with an aluminum electrode to continue working. The theoretical amount of positive active material in such batteries is infinite, so the theoretical capacity of the battery depends mainly on the amount of negative metal, and such batteries have a larger specific capacity. As a special fuel cell, aluminum air cells have great commercial potential in applications such as military, civil, and underwater power systems, telecommunications system backup power sources, and portable power supplies.
Advantages and disadvantages of aluminum air batteries
1 is larger than energy, the theoretical specific energy of aluminum air battery can reach 8100Wh/kg;
2 The light mass, the same energy of the aluminum air battery, the total mass is only 12% of the quality of the lead-acid battery;
3 non-toxic danger, can be recycled and recycled;
4 aluminum raw materials are abundant.
The disadvantages of aluminum air batteries are also obvious:
1 is a chemical reaction device that releases electric energy, cannot be recharged, and needs to be replaced with an aluminum electrode to continue working;
2 Although the aluminum air battery contains high specific energy, the specific power is low;
3 charging and discharging speed is relatively slow, voltage lag, self-discharge rate is large;
4 A thermal management system is required to prevent overheating of the aluminum air battery during operation.
The theoretical specific energy of aluminum air battery can reach 8100Wh/kg. The actual specific energy of aluminum air battery in 2014 only reaches 350Wh/kg, but it is also 7-8 times of lead-acid battery and 5.8 times of nickel-hydrogen battery. Lithium battery 2.3 times. After adopting the aluminum air battery, the vehicle can significantly improve the driving range. According to foreign information, the electric motor vehicle using aluminum air battery in California has a record of replacing the aluminum electrode with a driving range of 1600km.
The traction energy-type lead-acid battery developed and developed in China has a total energy of 13.5 kWh and a total mass of 375 kg. The total energy of the same energy aluminum air battery is only 45kg, which is 12% of the quality of lead-acid batteries. As the quality of the battery is greatly reduced, the quality of the vehicle is also reduced, which can increase the load energy of the vehicle or extend the driving range.
Aluminum does not cause harm to the human body and can be recycled and recycled without polluting the environment. Aluminum is rich in raw materials and has a large-scale aluminum smelter with low production costs. The recycling and recycling of aluminum is convenient, and the recycling cost is also low. Moreover, the method of replacing the aluminum electrode can be used to solve the problem of slow charging of the aluminum air battery.
Although the aluminum air battery contains high specific energy, the specific power is low, the charging and discharging speed is relatively slow, the voltage is delayed, and the self-discharge rate is large. A thermal management system is needed to prevent overheating of the aluminum air battery during operation.
Alcoa Canada and Israeli company Phinergy's new 100 kg aluminum air battery stores enough electricity to drive 3,000 kilometers. A car that uses this type of battery still needs to retain a lithium-ion battery. The aluminum battery is only activated after the lithium battery is exhausted, so it can take a long time, and only need to fill the water every month. Usually after reaching the end of use in a year or so, you can replace the new aluminum plate with the service station.
The development of aluminum air batteries has been around for more than 70 years. It is mainly used in the US military and aerospace administration. The aluminum air battery has been running on Mars for 13 years and is still operating normally.