In recent years, with the increasing pressure on energy and environmental protection, under the driving of national regulations, reducing the weight of automobiles and reducing fuel consumption has become the key to improving the competitiveness of automobile manufacturers. In order to improve the fuel efficiency of the whole vehicle, the OEMs have formulated weight reduction plans to clarify the light weight indicators, while using lightweight materials and technologies in the development of new models.
Aluminum has become an important material for lightweight vehicles because of its low density, good corrosion resistance, and excellent plasticity of aluminum alloy. The proportion and components of aluminum alloys used in automobiles are increasing.
According to Director Hou Ruoming of the Planning Department of China First Automobile Group Co., Ltd., in 2010, the aluminum aluminization rate of automobile wheels has reached 72% to 78%. In addition, there are many lightweight aluminum alloys for automotive transmissions, such as transmission housings and clutch housings. At the same time, the beam, the upper and lower control arm, the steering housing, the brake disc, the air conditioning condenser and the evaporator are all used in the components.
Since the weight of the car body is about 30% of the total mass of the car, the weight of the car body plays a pivotal role in the lightweight of the car.
When Wu Ruoming spoke at the meeting, he also said that from the mass ratio analysis of the various parts of the vehicle, the largest proportion is the body-in-white, accounting for 20% of the total mass of the whole vehicle, followed by the engine and other power units, accounting for the total mass of the vehicle. About %, chassis and other parts account for about 19%. According to the future development plan of FAW aluminum alloy application, the lightweight of aluminum alloy materials will be emphasized from the three aspects of the relatively large body-in-white, engine and chassis. From 2016 to 2018, in terms of aluminum alloy materials, automotive moving parts (four-door and two-faced fenders) and aluminum engines will be used as carriers to focus on aluminum sheet stamping, structural casting die-casting, extrusion casting and casting. Process research; from 2019 to 2020, it will be the first to be applied on high-end models and new energy vehicles, and some parts with comprehensive performance and cost advantages will be promoted in other models.
Fu Hongping, a senior researcher at Xinhuaxin, also said that the body, interior trim and chassis are the most lightweight components for passenger cars.
However, Hou Ruoming also pointed out that from the perspective of common aluminum parts on the engine and chassis, the domestic has already had certain capabilities, but there are still some bottlenecks on the aluminum body panel. At present, the body aluminum plate used by the main engine factory can only rely on imports, and the price is high. The domestic aluminum plate should be made as soon as possible in China. "If the cost can come down, the application of the aluminum body of the body is expected to enter the mid-range car from the high-end car. Under the premise of the mid-range car, the technology can be applied to the low-end car as soon as possible." Hou Ruoming said.
The broad market space and considerable profitability of the aluminum body of the body also attracted the construction line of aluminum enterprises at home and abroad. The internationally renowned body aluminum plate manufacturers Novelis and Kobe Steel have built factories in China. At the same time, domestic aluminum enterprises such as Nanshan Aluminum and Zhongwang have also invested in the construction of aluminum alloy body panels.
Fortunately, with the continuous improvement of the production equipment and technical level of domestic aluminum companies, the bottleneck of aluminum alloy body aluminum panels has been continuously overcome. At present, Nanshan Aluminum has independently developed its aluminum alloy sheet products for automobiles, and has become a domestic enterprise with the ability to mass-produce automobile inner and outer panels. It is expected to change the domestic aluminum alloy sheet of the main engine factory. situation.
When Zhao Yuzhi spoke, he said that China Aluminum Corporation has basically had the industrialization conditions of aluminum alloy body panels, and the basic performance of the prototype 6016 and 5182 automotive panels meets the needs of automobile companies. The 6016-THR type automobile sheet developed by the company has the same yield strength, elongation and flanging performance as the Kobe Steel and Novelis body panels. The strength of the paint is higher than that of Kobe Steel.
Once the domestic aluminum alloy body panels can achieve batch and stable supply, they will also make their prices more competitive. Zhao Yuzhi told reporters that although the local production of international automotive aluminum plate manufacturers can reduce the price of aluminum alloy body panels, but because the blanks need to be imported from abroad, the price drop space is limited, and once the domestic aluminum alloy body panels can be batched Stable supply, the price drop space is greater, which will also make aluminum alloy body panels more advantageous in the competition of lightweight materials, thus promoting the use of aluminum alloy body panels on more car models.
“The prelude to the lightweighting of Chinese automobiles has been opened. It is expected that the market for aluminum alloy sheet coverings will reach 60,000 tons in 2016 and more than 300,000 tons in 2020. In 2020, the number of interior structural parts and commercial vehicle sheets will exceed 700,000. T. "Zhao Yuzhi is very optimistic about the prospects of the automotive sheet market in the domestic market. At the same time, the global market is also very promising. He expects that in 2016, the market demand for aluminum alloy sheet for global cover will reach 600,000 tons, and in 2020 it will reach 2.5 million tons.
Keywords: American Airlines, aluminum, aluminum alloy