Use steel or aluminum? Which side do you choose?
专栏:Industry information
Whether the automotive materials use "steel" or "aluminum" is good, causing an uproar in the luxury car market. The origin of the event is: Mercedes-Benz's new E-class is said to be differen..........
Whether the automotive materials use "steel" or "aluminum" is good, causing an uproar in the luxury car market. The origin of the event is: Mercedes-Benz's new E-class is said to be different from domestic and international standards. Unlike the overseas version of the Mercedes-Benz E-Class, the new long-wheelbase E-class sedan made in China has turned the original aluminum cover into a number of places. Steel material.


Subsequently, Mercedes-Benz China issued a statement that the new domestic E-class meets the global unified production standards. It is certain that the new version of the domestic version is more important than the overseas version. How much weight gain? Available in different versions, minimum 22kg, maximum 200kg. No matter which number, it is not officially recognized. Use steel or aluminum? May stand on their own stand and spend two flowers and one table.


I am a wire, I am proud


Noun explanation - "steel wire": This "wire" is not a fan of Guo Degang, pay attention to "steel" rather than "class". The "steel wire" is not a steel wire that is actually pulled into a slender strip and rolled up. It is a building material. The "steel wire" mentioned here is a fan of preference for automotive steel materials.


Why use steel? Cheap!


From the perspective of car companies, in order to reduce costs, it is understandable to use steel for aluminum without sacrificing safety and production standards. Steel, mature and reliable, and more critically, low manufacturing costs. Aluminum can significantly reduce weight, but the manufacturing process is slightly more complicated and costs much higher than steel. How much can a car save by replacing aluminum with steel? The answer varies depending on the model. The car company is also secret, and the outside world is not known. A US automotive structure expert said that replacing aluminum with aluminum would require an additional cost of $850 to $2,800 for a car body structure.


High-strength steel can also reduce weight


In fact, as the main material for automobile production, steel is also evolving, especially high-strength steel. High-strength steel can effectively solve the contradiction between light weight, safety and cost. Compared with aluminum, high-strength steel is not inferior in weight reduction and performance, but the production cost is low. The all-aluminum body is only used on luxury cars, and high-strength steel has been popularized to A-class cars.


In the long run, the status of steel as the leading material for automobiles will not be shaken, and aluminum can only appear as an auxiliary. Once the steel material process breaks through, the possibility of the aluminum body being abandoned is not ruled out. Car weight reduction is a major trend and a requirement to reduce energy consumption, but it is based on a major premise – the sustainable burden of car consumers. In this respect, steel has an advantage over aluminum.


Heavy, but also an advantage


Taking a step back, the body is heavy, not necessarily a bad thing. For a long time, the car was "heavy". Communication between riders can often hear the compliment of "Your car is heavy and strong." Ten years ago, Japanese cars were also involved in the "body door" in China. The contradiction was not that steel was replaced by aluminum, but that "the iron sheet was thinner?" “Thin” and “Light” are equated with “unsafe” and “stolen work”. The Japanese car at the time was just like the current Mercedes-Benz. The weight of the car will give extra points for safety. In China, there are still many people who hold this view. The SUV has been selling well in the past three years, and it has a bearing relationship with the big and big, and it is still one of the key factors.


I am Alcoa, my trend


Noun explanation - "Alcoa": As the name suggests, good aluminum is also. Looking around today's car-making technology circle, it is a trend to use "aluminum alloy" instead of "steel" for the body structure material. The first to popularize the application is the million-class super sports car, hundreds of thousands of luxury cars, thus knowing that the meaning of MISS "aluminum" - expensive, sophisticated, tide. Use "aluminum", "environmental" GET!


The lightweight of automobiles has always been the subject of engineers' efforts in brainstorming. When aluminum alloy materials were found to be able to replace steel and make vehicles achieve significant weight reduction effects. Honestly, the engineers are ecstatic. People are thin and beautiful, and cars also have to lose weight. Maybe you have a question: the car is light, the body is not only unstable, is it still dangerous? Don't think that the car designers are all funny. Cars are not heavy, but too heavy and inappropriate. Moreover, the weight and safety of the car are not necessarily related to cause and effect. What is important is the body structure.


The all-aluminum body is the technology that uses aluminum alloy instead of steel for body coverings and even structural frames. According to experiments conducted by international research institutes, 50% to 60% by weight of aluminum alloy can replace steel, which can achieve the same performance; aluminum engine can reduce weight by 30%; aluminum radiator is 20% to 40 lighter than the same copper product. %; the aluminum body of the car is 40% lighter than the original steel products, so the use of aluminum instead of steel for automobile weight reduction effect is remarkable.


Energy saving and consumption reduction will be greatly reduced. If the vehicle weight is reduced by 10%, the fuel efficiency can be increased by 6% to 8%; for every 100 kg of vehicle curb weight, the fuel consumption per 100 kilometers can be reduced by 0.3 to 0.6 liters. In terms of cost, reducing the weight of a car by 1 kilogram can reduce the expenditure by about 10 dollars.


Aluminum body has been popularized


At the moment, it is necessary to make the new car a full aluminum body. However, the attractive weight-reducing effect of “aluminum-based iron” has not stopped since the birth of the automobile industry. All-aluminum engine, aluminum cylinder head, aluminum control arm, aluminum sub-frame, etc., are all successful cases of aluminum-based iron since the development of the automobile industry.


Although mass-produced cars manufactured in China, including joint venture brands, rarely use all-aluminum bodies. However, many imported models, especially high-end imported models, have already used or will use all-aluminum bodywork, which is already a trend. According to the investigation of automobile consultancy Duckers, aluminum in bicycles in North America, the European Union and Japan is 47%, 24% and 15% higher than that in China, respectively, and aluminum in bicycles in Europe, America and Japan continues to grow.


The large and medium-sized cars produced in Europe (the same level as the Mercedes-Benz E-Class and the BMW 5 Series) use an average amount of aluminum per body part of the car. It was almost 0 before 1990, and was about 40 kg in 2005. It is now close to 80 kg. . Ducker's report even boldly stated that by 2025, all-aluminum body cars will reach 18%.


Expensive, just for a while


Of course, we have to admit that the all-aluminum body not only requires higher production processes, but also higher costs for after-sales maintenance. However, note that this is based on the fact that “things are rare”. Indeed, most of the current aluminum materials are only used in expensive new super sports cars or luxury cars, but when the aluminum body is popularized, the steel body is gradually eliminated, the production process becomes mature, and the cost of after-sales maintenance naturally declines.


For example, the newly-launched new Jaguar XFL, which has just been listed, will use the “all-aluminum body” as a selling point to challenge the luxury car field that has long been occupied by the German ABB. The XFL all-aluminum frame displayed on the market was widely used by fans. This signal also tells everyone: "All-aluminum body" has appeared on domestic cars of more than 300,000 yuan. In the next few years, it will be applied to ten. More than 10,000 yuan is not a surreal idea.

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